1. Multi-layer interaction and its environmental and climatic effects
The process and mechanism of the third pole environmental change as well as its influence and response to global environmental change are revealed based on the multi-layer process and interaction of "water-Soil-Gas-Generating - human activity". To understand the history and mechanism of climate formation and evolution in cold and dry regions; The spatial distribution, differentiation, structure and function of mountain ecosystem and its response to environmental change were studied. Research has been carried out on the coupling mechanism of water, heat, force and salt in frozen soil and the simulation of ice-forming process, the change and evolution of frozen soil environmental process, engineering disaster prevention and control technology and engineering stability prediction in cold regions.
2. Impacts of climate change on water resources and ecosystems
To establish a three-dimensional comprehensive monitoring system for climate and ecological changes in cold and arid regions; The spatio-temporal characteristics and mechanism of climate change in arid and cold regions are revealed. To clarify the changes of regional hydrological cycle conditions such as precipitation, evaporation, runoff and soil moisture caused by man-made and natural factors, and scientifically evaluate the impact of human activities on the total and distribution of regional water resources; The multi-ring coupling model of IPCC was used to explore the future climate change trend of cold and dry regions.
3. Ecosystem restoration and biodiversity protection in cold and arid regions
To reveal the biological mechanism of biological adaptation under extreme environmental conditions of cold and drought; The biodiversity, community structure dynamics and soil-production-gas material energy cycle of typical ecosystems in cold and dry regions were systematically monitored. The mechanism of the influence of degraded grassland and wetland restoration on diversity, productivity and water resource conservation capacity in cold and dry regions was expounded, and the technical system and model of degraded grassland and wetland restoration consistent with regional characteristics were integrated and optimized.
4.Soil erosion control and water resources security
The process and mechanism of soil and water loss under complex erosion conditions and related disaster formation process are expounded. To deeply understand the driving mechanism of ecological degradation and the law of vegetation succession in areas with serious soil and water loss; To explore the law of water cycle and water resources evolution in the basin and to construct the sustainable utilization model of water resources in the arid region; To reveal the cryosphere process and its change mechanism in western China; The theory and method of vulnerability and adaptation are established and the countermeasures of adaptation are put forward.
5. Desertification control and sandstorm prevention and Control
A "wind-water-Carbon-Salt-sand" coupling model was constructed to simulate the internal and external cycling process of sand-dust release-transport-settlement. To explore the eco-hydrologic process of desert and its biological regulation mechanism to promote the ecological reconstruction and restoration of sand areas; The coupling mechanism of soil, water and heat and the stability maintenance mechanism of desert oasis were studied. The paper systematically studies the evolution process of desertification-oasisization spatial and temporal pattern in cold and dry regions, and reveals the driving mechanism of human activities and climate change.
6. Integration demonstration and regional development
Integration of technical systems to improve the quality and stability of ecosystems in different ecological regions. We will build a demonstration base for soil erosion and ecological restoration, a pilot demonstration zone for comprehensive desertification prevention and control, and a demonstration base for the restoration of degraded grasslands and wetlands. We will set up demonstration zones for ecological, social and economic sustainable development of different ecosystem types, and set up demonstration areas for ecological restoration of degraded grassland. Provide advice and Suggestions for ecological safety and sustainable development in western China.